Screenshot of Hypnotoad from the Episode 'Attack of the Killer App' on DVD
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Captioning Hypnotoad—A Quest That Helped Define a Field: An Interview with Sean Zdenek


Below are links to some of Sean Zdenek's research, references he cites in the interview, and additional references used in this webtext.

Zdenek's work
References cited by Zdenek in his responses
Media used or referenced throughout the webtext
Additional references

Zdenek's work

Sean Zdenek's Reading Sounds Online Support Site:

Sean Zdenek's research site Accessible Rhetoric:

Zdenek, S. (2012). Personal Reflections on the Educational Potential and Future of Closed Captioning on the Web. In Communication Technology for Students in Special Education and Gifted Programs (pp. 221-229). IGI Global.

Zdenek, Sean. (2014, March). More than mere transcription: Closed captioning as an artful practice. User Experience Magazine, 14(1). Retrieved from

Zdenek, Sean. (2015). Reading sounds: Closed-captioned media and popular culture. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

References cited by Zdenek in his responses

Chion, Michel. (2012). The three listening modes (Claudia Gorbman, Trans.). In Jonathan Sterne (Ed.), The sound studies reader (pp. 48–53). London, UK: Routledge.

Jensema, Carl J., Danturthi, Ramalinga Sarma, & Burch, Robert. (2000). Time spent viewing captions on television programs. American Annals of the Deaf, 145(5), 464–468. doi:10.1353/aad.2012.0144

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1991). "Coz it izny spelt when they say it": Displaying dialect in writing. American Speech, 66(3): 280–291. doi:10.2307/455800

Rashid, Raisa, Aitken, Jonathan, & Fels, Deborah I. (2006). Expressing emotions using animated text captions. In Klaus Miesenberger, Joachim Klaus, Wolfgang L. Zagler, & Arthur I. Karshmer (Eds.), International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4061 (pp. 24–31). Germany: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. doi:10.1007/11788713_5

Rashid, Raisa, Vy, Quoc, Hunt, Richard, & Fels, Deborah I. (2008). Dancing with words: Using animated text for captioning. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 24(5), 505–519. doi:10.1080/10447310802142342

Rawsthorn, Alice. (2007, May 27). The director Timur Bekmambetov turns film subtitling into an art. New York Times. Retrieved from

Rosenberg, Grant. (2007, May 15). Rethinking the art of subtitles. Time. Retrieved from,8599,1621155,00.html

Steintrager, James A. (2016). Introduction: Closed grooves, open ears. In Michael Chion (Ed.), Sound: An acoulogical treatise (pp. vii–xxvi). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Strapparava, Carlo, Valituti, Alessandro, & Stock, Oliviero. (2007). Dances with words. Proceedings of the 20th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 1719–1724. Retrieved from

Udo, John-Patrick, & Fels, Deborah. I. (2010). The rogue poster-children of universal design: Closed captioning and audio description. Journal of Engineering Design, 21(2–3): 207–221. doi:10.1080/09544820903310691

Vy, Quoc V. (2012). Enhanced captioning: Speaker identification using graphical and text-based identifiers (Master's thesis). Retrieved from

Vy, Quoc V., & Fels, Deborah I. (2009). Using avatars for improving speaker identification in captioning. In Tom Gross, Jan Guilliksen, Paula Kotzé, Lars Oestreicher, Philippe Palanque, Raquel Oliveira Prates, & Marco Winckler (Eds.), Human–Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2009. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 5727 (pp. 916–919). Berlin, Germany: International Federation for Information Processing. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-03658-3_110

Vy, Quoc V., Mori, Jorge A., Fourney, David W., & Fels, Deborah I. (2008). EnACT: A software tool for creating animated text captions. In Klaus Miesenberger, Joachim Klaus, Wolfgang Zagler, & Arthur Karshmer (Eds.), International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 5105 (pp. 609–616). Germany: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-70540-6_87

Media used or referenced throughout the webtext

Bekmambetov, Timur (Director). (2006). Night watch [Motion picture]. Fox Searchlight Pictures.

Chappell, Mark, Pye, Shaun, Connor, Alan (Writers), & Harcastle, Alex (Director). (2012). Episode #1.1 [Television series episode]. In Jon Hamm, Saskia Schuster, Lucy Lumsden, Matthew Justice, & Dan Scheesbrough (Executive Producers), A young doctor's notebook. Ovation Network.

Hardwicke, Catherine (Director). (2008). Twilight [Motion picture]. United States: Summit Entertainment.

Keller, Ken; Cohen, David X. (Writers), & Carey-Hill, Dwayne (Director). (2008). Bender's big score [Television series episode]. In Matt Groenig, David X. Cohen, & Ken Keeler (Executive Producers), Futurama. 20th Century Fox Television.

Kosinski, Joseph (Director). (2013). Oblivion [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.

Kramer, Jerry [jerrykramer64]. (2010, March 21). Vince Lombardi's Super Bowl II pregame speech—From ESPN Super Bowl pregame special [Video file]. YouTube. Retrieved from

Mangold, James (Director). (2010). Knight and day [Motion picture]. United States: 20th Century Fox.

Morel, Pierre (Director). (2008). Taken [Motion picture]. France: 20th Century Fox.

Morton, Lewis (Writer), & Hughart, Ron (Director). (2003). Bender should not be allowed on tv [Television series episode]. In Matt Groenig, David X. Cohen, & Ken Keeler (Executive Producers), Futurama. 20th Century Fox Television.

Mostow, Jonathan (Director). (2003). Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Bros.

O'Connor, Gavin (Director). (2004). Miracle [Motion picture]. United States: Walt Disney.

redpawn3. (2015, December 25). To the people who write closed captioning… Is there ever a time the police sirens are going off but not wailing? [Tweet]. Retrieved from

Rothenberg, Jason (Writer), & White, Dean (Director). (2015). Blood must have blood, part two [Television series episode]. In The 100. Warner Bros.

Stallone, Sylvester (Director). (2006). Rocky Balboa [Motion picture]. United States: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

Stone, Oliver (Director). (1999). Any given Sunday [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Bros.

Texas Tech Red Raiders. (2015, July 30). #FEARLESS - Texas Tech football [Video file]. YouTube. Retrieved from

Verrone, Patric M. (Writer), & Sandoval, Stephen (Director). (2010). Attack of the killer app [Television series episode]. In Matt Groenig, David X. Cohen, & Ken Keeler (Executive Producers), Futurama. 20th Century Fox Television.

Westbrook, Jeff (Writer), & Ervin, Mark (Director). (2001). The day the earth stood stupid [Television series episode]. In Matt Groenig & David X. Cohen (Executive Producers), Futurama. 20th Century Fox Television.

Additional references

Bond, Lily. (2014, May 21). How subtitles for the deaf and hard-of-hearing (SDH) differ from closed captions [Blog post]. 3Play Media. Retrieved from

Butler, Janine. (2016, August). Responses to moderator questions during Caption studies: Research questions for the field. Panel at the Caption Studies Conference, online.

Davey, Ronnie, & Parkhill, Faye. (2012). Raising adolescent reading achievement: The use of sub-titled popular movies and high interest literacy activities. English in Aotearoa, 78, 61–71.

Davis, Lennard J. (Ed.). (2006). The disability studies reader (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Garland-Thompson, Rosemarie. (1997). Extraordinary bodies: Figuring phsyical disability in American culture and literature. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Garland-Thompson, Rosemarie. (2009). Staring: How we look. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Gernsbacher, Morton Ann. (2015). Video captions benefit everyone. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2(1), 195–202. doi:10.1177/2372732215602130

Gowhary, Habib, Pourhalashi, Zeinab, Jamalinesari, Ali, & Azizifar, Akbar. (2015). Investigating the effect of video captioning on Iranian EFL learners' listening comprehension. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 192, 205–212. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.029

Hori, Chiori, & Furui, Sadaoki. (2000). Automatic speech summarization based on word significance and linguistic likelihood. 2000 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing. Proceedings, 3, 1579–1582. doi:10.1109/ICASSP.2000.861983

Hsu, Ching-Kun, Hwang, Gwo-Jen, Chang, Yu-Tzu, & Chang, Chih-Kai. (2013). Effects of video caption modes on English listening comprehension and vocabulary acquisition using handheld devices. Educational Technology & Society, 16(1), 403–414.

Linder, Kate. (2016). Student uses and perceptions of closed captions and transcripts: Results from a national study. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Ecampus Research Unit. Retrieved from

Lueck, Amy. (2013). Writing a translingual script: Closed captions in the English multilingual hearing classroom. Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy, 17(3). Retrieved from

Markham, Paul. (1999). Captioned videotapes and second-language listening word recognition. Foreign Language Annals, 32, 321–328. doi:10.1111/j.1944-9720.1999.tb01344.x

Mayer, Richard E., Lee, Hyunjeong, & Peebles, Alanna. (2014). Multimedia learning in a second language: A cognitive load perspective. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28(5), 653–660. doi:10.1002/acp.3050

Parkhill, Faye, & Davey, Ronnie. (2014). "I used to read one page in two minutes and now I am reading ten": Using popular film subtitles to enhance literacy outcomes. Literacy Learning: The Middle Years, 22(2), 28–33.

Reid, Blake E. (2014, March). Third party captioning and copyright. Atlanta, GA: G3ict. Retrieved from

Reid, Blake. (2015, April 2). How copyright and fair use impact third party captioning for educational video [Video file]. 3Play Media. Retrieved from

Saraclar, Murat, Riley, Michael, Bocchieri, Enrico, & Goffin, Vincent. (2002, September). Towards automatic closed captioning: Low latency real time broadcast news transcription. In Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (pp. 1741–1744). Denver, CO. Retrieved from

Snell, Nicole. (2012). Toward a theory of media reconciliation: An exploratory study of closed captioning (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Snyder, Sharon L., Brueggemann, Brenda Jo, & Garland-Thompson, Rosemarie (Eds.). (2002). Disability studies: Enabling the humanities. New York, NY: Modern Language Association.

Wactlar, Howard. D., Kanade, Takeo, Smith, Michael A., & Stevens, Scott M. (1996). Intelligent access to digital video: Informedia project. Computer, 29(5), 46–52. doi:10.1109/2.493456

Wald, Mike. (2006). Creating accessible educational multimedia through editing automatic speech recognition captioning in real time. Interactive Technology and Smart Education, 3(2), 131–141. doi:10.1108/17415650680000058

Winke, Paula, Gass, Susan, & Sydorenko, Tetyana. (2013). Factors influencing the use of captions by foreign language learners: An eye-tracking study. Modern Language Journal, 97(1), 254–275. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4781.2013.01432.x