Adler, Mortimer. (1983). How to speak/How to listen. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Anderson, Erin R. (2014). Toward a resonant material vocality for digital composition. Enculturation: A Journal of Rhetoric, Writing, and Culture, 18. Retrieved from

Branscum, John & Toscano, Aaron. (2007). Experimenting with multimodality. In Cynthia Selfe (Ed.). Multimodal composition: Resources for teachers (pp. 83–98). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Brooke, Collin Gifford. (2014). New media pedagogy. In Gary Tate, Amy Rupiper, & Kurt Schick (Eds.), A guide to composition pedagogies (2nd ed.) (pp. 177–193). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Byrd, Don, & Owen, Derek. (1998). Writing in the hivemind. In Todd Taylor & Irene Ward (Eds.), Literacy theory in the age of the Internet (pp. 47–58). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Center for Applied Special Technology. (2011). Universal design for learning guidelines version 2.0. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Universal Design for Learning. Retrieved from

ClkerFreeVectorImages. (2012). Untitled [Image file]. Pixabay. Retrieved from

Comstock, Michelle R., & Hocks, Mary. (2006). Voice in the cultural soundscape: Sonic literacy in composition studies. Computers and Composition Online [Special Issue: Sound in/as Compositional Space]. Retrieved from

Council of Writing Program Administrators, National Council of Teachers of English, & National Writing Project. (2011). Frameworks for success in postsecondary writing. Retrieved from

Csikszentmihalyi, Mihalyi. (1981). Some paradoxes in the definition of play. In Alice T. Cheska (Ed.), Play as context (pp. 14–36). West Point, NY: Leisure Press.

Dewey, John. (2013). How we think. Lexington, KY: Renaissance Classics.

DeWinter, Jennifer, & Moeller, Ryan. (Eds.). (2014). Computer games and technical communication: Critical methods & applications at the intersection. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Ede, Lisa, & Lunsford, Andrea. (1984). Audience addressed/audience invoked: The role of audience in composition theory and pedagogy. College Composition and Communication, 35(2), 155–171.

Flanigan, Mary. (Ed.). (2013). Critical play: Radical game design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Fontana, Bill. (2008). The relocation of ambient sound: Urban sound sculpture. Leonardo, 41(2), 154–158.

Foss, Sonja K. (2004). Framing the study of visual rhetoric: Toward a transformation of rhetorical theory. In Charles A. Hill & Marguerite Helmers (Eds.), Defining visual rhetorics (pp. 303–313). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Goodman, Paul. (1972). Speaking and language: Defence of poetry. New York, NY: Random House.

Halbritter, Bump. (2006). Musical rhetoric in integrated media composition. Computers and Composition, 23(3), 317–334.

Helmers, Marguerite, & Hill, Charles A. (2004). Introduction. In Defining visual rhetorics (pp. 1–23). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Herrick, James A. (2005). The history and theory of rhetoric: An introduction (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.

Hicks, Troy. (2009). The digital writing workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Hjortshoj, Keith. (2001). Understanding writing blocks. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Jenkins, Henry. (2006). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

JLH Fonts. (2014, May 10). Scratched Letters [Image file]. 1001FreeFonts. Retrieved from

Johnson, Bruce. (2005). “Hamlet”: Voice, music, sound. Popular Music, 24(2), 257–267.

Johnson, Steven. (2010). Steven Johnson: Where good ideas come from. [Video file]. TED. Retrieved from

Jones, Brandon. (2011, September 28). Understanding visual hierarchy in web design. [Web blog post]. WebDesign. Retrieved from–webdesign-84

Kennedy, Krista, & Howard, Rebecca Moore. (2014). Collaborative writing, print to digital. In Gary Tate, Amy Rupiper, & Kurt Schick (Eds.), A guide to composition pedagogies (2nd ed.) (pp. 37–54). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Kress, Gunther, & van Leeuwen, Theo. (2001). Multimodal discourse: The modes and media of contemporary communication. London, UK: Bloomsbury.

Kress, Gunther. (2005). Gains and losses: New forms of texts, knowledge, and learning. Computers and Composition, 22, 5–22.

McKee, Heidi. (2006). Sound matters: Notes toward the analysis and design of sound in multimodal webtexts. Computers and Composition, 23, 335–354.

Murray, Joddy. (2013). Composing multimodality. In Claire Lutkewitte (Ed.), Multimodal composition: A critical sourcebook (pp. 325–350). Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s Press.

National Council of Teachers of English Executive Committee. (2005). Position statement on multimodal literacies. Retrieved from

National Writing Project (DeVoss, Dànielle Nicole, Eiman-Aedahl, Elyse, & Hicks, Troy). (2010). Because digital writing matters: Improving student writing in online and multimedia environments. San Francisco, CA: Wiley & Sons.

Palmeri, Jason. (2012). Remixing composition: A history of multimodal writing pedagogy. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Pederson, Anne-Marie, & Skinner, Carolyn. (2007). Collaborating on multimodal projects. In Cynthia Selfe (Ed.). Multimodal composition: Resources for teachers (pp. 39–47). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Robson, Dominic. (2002). Play!: Sound toys for non-musicians. Computer Music Journal, 26(3), 50–61.

Rodrigue, Tanya K. (2015). An epistemological process for multimodal assignment design. Journal of Global Literacies, Technologies, and Emerging Pedagogies, 3(1). Retrieved from

Schon, Donald A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Schon, Donald A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Towards a new design for teaching and learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

Selfe, Cynthia L. (2004). Taking up challenges of visual literacy. In Anne Frances Wysocki, Johndan Johnson–Eilola, Cynthia L. Selfe, & Geoffrey Sirc, Writing new media (pp. 67–110). Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.

Selfe, Cynthia L. (Ed.). (2007). Multimodal composition: Resources for teachers. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Selfe, Cynthia L. (2009). The movement of air, the breath of meaning: Aurality and multimodal composing. College Composition and Communication, 60(4), 616–663.

Selfe, Cynthia L., & Takayoshi, Pamela. (2007). Thinking about multimodality. In Cynthia L. Selfe (Ed.). Multimodal composition: Resources for teachers (pp. 1–12). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Shipka, Jody. (2006). Sound engineering: Toward a theory of multimodal soundness [Special issue: Sound in/as Compositional Space]. Computers and Composition, 23, 355–373.

Shipka, Jody. (2011). Toward a composition made whole. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Stedman, Kyle D. (2011). How music speaks: In the background, in the remix, in the city. Currents in Electronic Literacy, 14. Retrieved from

Stedman, Kyle D. (2013). Making meaning in musical mixes. Harlot: A Revealing Look at the Arts of Persuasion, 9. Retrieved from

Taylor, Trey. (2013, August 8). The rise and fall of Katharine Hepburn’s fake accent. The Atlantic. Retrieved from

Tezak, Kyle. (2014). Four icon challenge: Storytelling, icon design. Retrieved from

The New London Group. (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. Harvard Educational Review, 66(1), 60–92.

The WIDE Research Collective. (2005). Why teach digital writing? Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy, 10(1). Retrieved from

Tonkiss, Fran. (2003). Aural postcards: Sound, memory and the city. In Michael Bull & Les Back (Eds.), The auditory culture reader (pp. 303–309). Oxford, UK: Berg Publishers.

van Leeuwen, Theo. (1999). Speech, music, sound. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, Inc.

VanKooten, Crystal. (2011). A new composition, a 21st century pedagogy, and the rhetoric of music. Currents in Electric Literacy, 14. Retrieved from

Walls, Douglas M. (2008). An ‘a’ word production: Authentic design. Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy, 13(1). Retrieved from

Wysocki, Anne F. (2004). Opening new media to writing: Openings and justifications. In Anne F. Wysocki, Johndan Johnson–Eilola, Cynthia L. Selfe, & Geoffrey Sirc, Writing new media: Theory and applications for expanding the teaching of composition (pp. 1–41). Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.

Wysocki, Anne Frances. (2008). Seeing the screen: Research into visual and digital writing practices. In Charles Bazerman (Ed.), Handbook of research on writing: History, society, school, individual, text (pp. 599–612). New York, NY: Routledge.

Wysocki, Anne Frances, Johnson–Eilola, Johndan, Selfe, Cynthia L, & Sirc, Geoffrey. (2004). Writing new media. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.

Yancey, Kathleen Blake. (2004). Made not only in words: Composition in a new key. College Composition and Communication, 56(2), 297–328.

Yergeau, Melanie. (2011, June 19). Defending and (re)defining self-advocacy [Web log post]. AspieRhetor. Retrieved from

Yergeau, Melanie, Brewer, Elizabeth, Kerschbaum, Stephanie L., Oswal, Sushil, Price, Margaret, Salvo, Michael J., Selfe, Cynthia L., & Howes, Franny. (2013). Multimodality in motion. Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy, 18(1). Retrieved from

Zdenek, Sean. (2008, July 2). Podcasting 2:0: Towards an accessible web, part 2 [Web blog post]. Retrieved from