Of the Toulmin argumentation terms--claim, stated reason, grounds, warrant, rebuttal, and qualifier--the authors use only claim. They substitute evidence for grounds and assumption for warrant. Toulmin argumentation is principally focused on reasoning. The approach to persuasive rhetoric in Connections is broader, incorporating non-Toulmin terms such as tone, style, context, medium, genre, and common ground.

As an example of how resources on the Web can extend print-based material, here are just a few sites on argumentation based on the work of Stephen Toulmin.

  • Instructor Resources for Teaching Toulmin from Ramage and Bean's Instructor's Manual for Writing Arguments
  • A basic Toulmin schema and example
  • "Stallone is mortal" run through the Toulmin schema. Humorous and effective.
  • Toulmin biography
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