Manuscript Materials

National Archives of the United States:
Center for Legislative Archives, Senate Records, 1B-C2, President's message regarding a treaty with Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Creek Indians, August 22, l789

Microfilm Record Group M247, Papers of the Continental Congress, rolls 34 and 165

Photographic Materials

United States Senate, Office of the Secretary:
Office of the Senate Historian

New York State Museum:
Onondaga Nation (Haudenosaunee)

Oklahoma Historical Society:
Cherokee Nation

Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation at Monticello

Science Museum, South Kensington, London

Private collections:
William Mohr (Pitman stenography)
Silvio Bedini (Thomas Jefferson)
Rennard Strickland (Cherokee law)

Government Documents and Publications

Gales, J. and Seaton, F. (l834). The debates and proceedings in the Congress of the United States, with an appendix containing important state papers and public documents (The Annals of Congress). Washington: Gales and Seaton.

Hewitt, J.N.B. (1910). Wampum. In F.W. Hodge (Ed.), Handbook of American Indians north of Mexico, 2 vols. Washington, DC: Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30.

Lowrie, W; Clarke, M. and Franklin, W.S. (Eds.) (l832). Indian affairs, vol. 1. In American state papers. Documents, legislative and executive, of the Congress of the United States. Washington, DC: Gales and Seaton, Publishers.

Mooney, J. (l900). Myths of the Cherokees. Nineteenth annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnography. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Swanstrom, R. (l985). The United States Senate 1781-1801. A dissertation on the first fourteen years of the upper legislative body. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Clarke, N. T. (l931). The wampum belt collection of the New York State Museum. Albany: New York State Museum Bulletin No. 288, 85-121.

Unpublished Studies

MacPherson, E. (l940). The history of reporting the debates and proceedings of Congress. Unpublished dissertation. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Mohr, W. (l992). [History of stenographic reporting in the Senate]. Unpublished data. Interview by author.

Reynolds, C. J. (l992). [History of stenographic reporting in the Senate]. Unpublished data. Interview by author.

Smith, C. F. (l994a). Documenting democracy in the First Federal Congress of the United States. Presented on panel Rhetoric of nation-building, Conference on College Composition and Communication.

__________________ (l994b). A history of shorthand writing. Presented on panel Mediating expertise: Lay and expert knowledge construction, Penn State Conference on Rhetoric and Composition.

___________________(l995). Coming to terms: White-Indian rhetoric of treatying in America, l789. Presented on panel Writing rhetorical histories of modern revolutions, Conference on College Communication and Composition.

____________________(1996c). Cherokee-United States diplomacy in l789. Presented on panel Inventing pluralism: Three rhetorical histories of democracy, Biennial Conference of the Rhetoric Society of America.

___________________ (l997). Material rhetoric: Wampum, writing, and the World Wide Web. Presented on panel Object-orientation: Toward a conceptual framework for World Wide Web writing, Conference on Computers and Writing.

Smith, R. (l997). [Iroquois names.] Unpublished data. Interview by author.

Swift, E. K. (l989) Reconstitutive change in the United States Congress: The transformation of the Senate l789-1841. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International.

Reference Works

Atlas of early American history: The revolutionary era 1760-90 (l976). Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Dictionary of American Biography (1935). John Sevier, xvi, 602-606.

Encyclopedia Britannica (l911). Shorthand, xxiv, 1007-1013.


Abernethy, T. P. (l932). From frontier to plantation in Tennessee. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

_________________________ (l959). Western lands and the American revolution. New York: Russell and Russell.

Arendt, H. (l989; l958). The human condition. Chicago: University of Chicago press.

Bedini, S.A. (l984). Thomas Jefferson and his copying machine. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.

__________________ (l990). Thomas Jefferson: Statesman of science. New York: Macmillan.

Bickford, C., Bowling, K.R., and Veit, H.E. (Eds.) (l992). Debates in the House of Representatives, First Session April-May, l789. In DePauw, vol. 10.

Bowling, K. R., and Veit, H. E. (Eds.) (1988; l927). William Maclay's diary and other notes on Senate debates. In DePauw, vol. 9.

DePauw, L. G., Bickford, C.B., and Siegel, L. M. (Eds.) (l972-92). Documentary history of the First Federal Congress of the United States of America. 11 Vols. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

_____________________ (l972). Senate legislative journal. Vol. 1.

_____________________ (l974). Senate executive journal and related documents. Vol. 2.

Driver, C. S. (l932). John Sevier: Pioneer of the old west. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Duin, A. H. and Hansen, C.J. (Eds.) (l996). Nonacademic writing: Social theory and technology. Mahway: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Eckert, A. (l992). A sorrow in our heart: The life of Tecumseh. New York: Bantam Books.

Fliegelman, J. (1993). Declaring independence: Thomas Jefferson, natural language, and the culture of performance. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.

Henri, F. (l986). The southern indians and Benjamin Hawkins, l796-1816. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Hirshchfelder, A. and de Montano, M. K. (1993). The Native American almanac: A portrait of Native America today. New York: Prentice Hall.

Jefferson, T. (l955; l787). Notes on the State of Virginia. Peden, W. (Ed.). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Jennings, F. (l995; l985). Iroquois diplomacy: An interdisciplinary guide to the treaties of the Six Nations and their League. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

Kidder, T. (l981). The soul of a new machine. Boston: Little, Brown.

Lanham, R. A. (l993). The electronic word: Democracy, technology, and the arts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lyons, O.(Ed.). (l992). Exiled in the land of the free: Democracy, Indian nations, and the U.S. constitution. Santa Fe: Clear Light Publishers.

Matthews, R. K. (l984). The radical politics of Thomas Jefferson, a revisionist view. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.

Morgan, L. H. (l972; 1851). The League of the Ho-de-na-sau-nee, or Iroquois. Rochester: Sage.

Nelson, T. (l984). Literary Machines: The report on, and of, Project Xanadu. Swarthmore: Project Xanadu.

Poster, M. (1990). The mode of information: Postructuralism and social context. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Reid, J. P. (1976). A better kind of hatchet: Law, trade, and diplomacy in the Cherokee nation during the early years of European contact. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press.

Schaaf, G. (l990). Wampum belts & peace trees: George Morgan, Native Americans, and revolutionary diplomacy. Golden: Fulcrum.

Snyder, G. (l990). The practice of the wild. San Francisco: North Point Press.

Strickland, R. (l975). Fire and the spirits: Cherokee law from clan to court. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Wallace, P.A. W. (1987). Indian paths of Pennsylvania. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Association.

Washburn, W. (l973). The American Indian and the United States, a documentary history. New York: Random House.

Weatherford, J. (1988). Indian givers: How the Indians of the Americas transformed the new world, New York: Crown Publishers, l988.

_________________ (l991). Native roots: How the Indians nourished America. New York: Crown Publishers.

Williams, R. (1976). Keywords: Vocabulary of culture and society. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wills, G. (1978). Inventing America: Jefferson's declaration of independence. Garden City: Doubleday.

Articles and Chapters

Bush, V. (l945). As we may think. Atlantic Monthly, vol. 176 no. 1, 101-108.

Druke, M. A. (l995; 1985). Iroquois treaties: Common forms, varying interpretations. In Jennings, 85-98.

Englebart, D. C. and English, W. K.(l968). A research center for the augmentation of human intellect. Proceedings of the Fall Joint Computer Conference, 395-410. Montvale: AFIPS Press.

Fenton, W. N. (1971). The New York State wampum collection: The case for the integrity of cultural treasures. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 115 no. 6, 437-461.

________________ (1995;1985). Structure, continuity and change in the process of Iroquois treaty making. In Jennings, 3-36.

Foster, M. K.(l995; l985). Another look at the function of wampum in Iroquois-white councils. In Jennings, 99-114.

Gregg, J. R. (l992). Julius Caesar's stenographer. In Journal of Court Reporting. January, 32-35.

Schryer, C. F. (l993). Records as genre. In Written Communication, vol. 10 no. 2, 200-234.

Sellars, H. W. (l904). Letters of Thomas Jefferson to Charles Willson Peale, l796-1865. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 28, 144-149.

Smith, C. F. (l993). 'Is it worth fixing this plane?': The rhetorical life of information in a Congressional oversight hearing on the B-1 bomber. In Brenda R.Sims (Ed.), Studies in technical communication: Selected papers from the l992 CCCC and NCTE meetings, 111-146. Denton: University of North Texas Press.

___________________ (l996a). Thomas Jefferson's computer. In Computers and composition: An international journal for teachers of writing, vol. 13 no. 1, 5-21.

___________________ (l996b). Understanding institutional discourse in the United States Congress, past and present. In Duin and Hansen, 205-226.

Snyderman, G. S. (1954). The functions of wampum. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol.98 no. 6, 469-494.

Tinling, M. (l961). Thomas Lloyd's reports of the First Federal Congress. William and Mary Quarterly, vol. xviii no. 4, 519-545.