In "Thinking about Multimodality" Pamela Takayoshi and Cynthia Selfe (2007) recommended that students "need to be experienced and skilled not only in reading (consuming) texts employing multiple modalities, but also in composing in multiple modalities" (pp. 3-4). A move toward student production of multimodal composition assignments aids in student development of digital literacies. Just as student production of texts crossing modalities will impact digital literacy development, we believe, as Takayoshi and Selfe (2007) indicated, that student development can be significantly impacted when instructional materials are multimodal:

Opportunities to think and compose multimodally can help us develop an increasingly complex and accurate understanding of writing, composition instruction, and text. It is only teachers' learning about new approaches to composing and creating meaning through texts that will catalyze change in composition classrooms. (p. 6)
Multimodal instruction involves using digital tools to deliver instructional content including teaching complex subject matter, facilitating analysis of rhetorical choices, and offering feedback to guide revision process choice. Through the use of multiple modes of instruction, including animation, verbal instruction, and written text, we hope to maximize students' learning about the rhetorical choices necessary to create cohesive multimodal texts.

The context for our team's implementation of multimodal instruction was prompted by our university's request to reconceptualize composition course content for online learners. Our team viewed composition curriculum through the lens of multimodal instruction to influence students' digital literacies and impact student multimodal composing. We redesigned our composition courses by considering all instructional content and questioning how all information could be presented to maximize learning. As Takayoshi and Selfe (2007) suggested, we encouraged students to exchange information in online environments "using a variety of semiotic resources and systems to make meaning as they compose: not only words, but also still and moving images, sound, and color among other modalities" (p. 8). As we approached the course, we imagined as online learners what would be the optimal experience to interact with information that exceeds print. We did not abandon the use of text materials, but rather complemented with audio and video content. For example, instead of a welcome email or announcement, we offered students a welcome video, which was accompanied by a meet your instructor video.

Multimodal instruction addresses 21st century literacies through print, electronic, and sound media. In "The Movement of Air, The Breath of Meaning" Cynthia Selfe (2009) said, "a single-minded focus on print in composition classrooms ignores the importance of aurality and other composing modalities for making meaning and understanding the world" (p. 617). We must expand approaches and course materials to cross modalities; we should determine ways to examine course layout to include offering a variety of introductory materials that incorporate video, writing assignment packages that exceed print, and feedback on student writing that aids in student desire to make revisions. As Ana Feldman (2008) stated in Making Writing Matter: Composition in the Engaged University, faculty should "rethink their writing activities as they rethink traditional approaches to the production of knowledge" (p. 6). Most beginning composition students have limited exposure to instructional materials offered in any modality other than print just as their request to produce documents seldom extends beyond the production of essays. In the background section, we further explore assignments and course portfolios supported through multimodal instruction.

We aspire to leave readers with an argument to incorporate multimodal instruction into their course design. While we acknowledge that multimodality is not limited to digital environments, our piece focuses on digital texts and development of multimodal instruction within digital environments because our course was offered online. We believe that multimodal instruction serves as a model for students to critically consider the multimodal projects they are producing and illustrates the considerations needed to design multimodal documents.